As the visualization above, by Time Out Hong Kong, demonstrates, the sleepy Pearl River Delta was on the cusp of an unprecedented growth spurt that would see cities expand and merge to become the largest contiguous urban region in the world. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. Nov. 14, 2019, Landsat 8 (path/row 122/44) — Pearl River Delta, China In 1978, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China had a population of just under 10 million. Yongli Wang, Steve Hung Lam Yim, Yuanjian Yang, Cory W. Morin, The effect of urbanization and climate change on the mosquito population in the Pearl River Delta region of China, International Journal of Biometeorology, 10.1007/s00484-019-01837-4, (2019). One physical manifestation of Mainland China’s push for an integrated region is the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge. wuqijun +2. This technology is integral to China’s proposed social points system. The pearl river delta is just part of that province and though the 7 millions from Hong Kong add up to the PRD population, those 120 millions are just completely unrealistic. March 25, 2019 Canton, China, Great Bay, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Macao, megalopolis, metropolis, metropolitan areas, Pearl River Delta, Shenzhen, urbanization. The demographic dynamics of the Indo‐Pacific finless porpoise in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region were investigated by analysing 307 cases of beached carcasses that … Therefore, even rare earths mined overseas are sent to China for final processing. The ubiquity of surveillance cameras can be unnerving to some, as they represent diminishing privacy. In order to reduce dependence on China, the U.S. and Japan have made it a priority to diversify their sources of rare earth metals. Guangzhou, known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the largest city and capital of China's Guangdong province. Beijing ranks in tenth place. ... As of 24 May 2019 PRD Pearl River Delta TWM Total Water Management “China will not rule out using rare earth exports as leverage to deal with the [Trade War] situation.”. China’s virtual monopoly in rare earth metals not only gives it a strategic upper hand over heavily dependent countries like the U.S.—which imports 80% of its rare earths from China—but also makes the supply chain anything but reliable. Meeting opportunities and challenges: Realising high-quality urban ... critical phase of moving towards high-quality growth. 14, pp. 3099067 Urbanization has critical implications for … FIGURE 9-6 Farmland and total population, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. To put the scale of this population clustering into perspective, here are the populations of cities within the Pearl River Delta in 2020 compared with modern-day metropolitan areas in North America and Europe: Today, this compact region has a GDP equivalent to that of South Korea. Does America View Its Trade Relationships as Fair? Although deposits of rare earth metals exist all over the world, the majority of both mining and refining occurs in China. ... didn't even both guessing Guangzhou as in all other quizzes its population is about 70 million. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. China’s dominance in rare earths is the result of years of evolving industrial policies since the 1980s, ranging from tax rebates to export restrictions. Chennai, India has 657 cameras per square kilometer, making it the number one city in the world in terms of surveillance. This shift in the regional dynamic is causing trepidation in Hong Kong, where over 90% of the millennial population identifies as “Hong Konger” as opposed to “Chinese”. Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; ; Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; /doi/full/10.1080/10106049.2019.1576778?needAccess=true. In the late 1970s, the fertile river delta to the north of Hong Kong’s territory was primarily agricultural land. The explosive growth the Pearl River Delta has upended the regional balance of power. Ultimately, the large majority of rare earth refining, 80%, resides in China. Lanthanum, found in hybrid vehicles and smartphones, was China’s largest rare earth export by volume, followed by cerium. 147-163. ... in both size and population, in January 2015. With the construction of the world-class urban agglomeration of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the ES of the PRD is facing huge disturbances of population pressure and resource consumption. Hong Kong is no longer a separate entity, and its GDP represents a mere 3% of China’s. Opportunity 2019. In most instances, cameras are in a fixed position—and some of the more invasive aspects of CCTV, like accompanying facial recognition technology, are not universal yet. Although numerous literatures have documented the monitoring of population distributions and dynamics for socio-economic development, environmental protection, and urban planning on different scales, little attention has been paid to long-term and multi-frequency population evolution on urban agglomeration scale, especially in non-census years. 2 In the 1990s this population was estimated to be 100 million a year. Mapped: Which Countries Have the Worst Air Pollution? A number of factors also helped contribute to the meteoric rise of the region: proximity to Hong Kong’s financial sector, a world-class seaport, a huge and inexpensive labor pool, cheap and abundant land, and few regulatory impediments to rapidly growing companies. Accepted author version posted online: 21 Mar 2019, Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Monitoring population dynamics in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2010, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; ; Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; ; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. London is the only non-Asian city to crack the list with 399 CCTV cameras per square kilometer. Dr Lee, who holds a PhD Degree in Urban Planning ... leaks, while the growing population adds to demand, with their high usage likely encouraged by low prices. The entire province of Guangdong has about 80 million inhabitants plus an assumed 30 million migrant workers. China is doubling down with surveillance in its cities by pioneering the usage and exportation of facial recognition technology. In China, where each project is more ambitious than the next, it’s only fitting that the world’s largest urban area will be connected by the world’s largest sea crossing. Guangzhou will join hands with cities in the Pearl River Delta to participate in the global division of labour and cooperation to build a vibrant global city. The Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration (PRD) is one of the three major urban agglomerations in China and is the most economically active and urbanized region. In the two decades after Deng Xiaoping’s market reforms, the GDP of the region grow by more than 10x and urbanization – bolstered by large-scale infrastructure projects – began in earnest. Selected the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China as the study area, this work aimed to solve the aforementioned problems by constructing the residential extent extraction index (REEI) and employing the population growth theory and ‘DN density–population density’ model. As the world transitions to a cleaner future, the demand for rare earth metals is expected to nearly double by 2030, and countries are in need of a reliable supply chain. Furthermore, although multi models have been applied to population spatialization based on night-time light imagery (NLT) and census data, their accuracy needs to be further improved. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses nearly 7000 square kilometers, 0.07 percent of China, with a population of 22 million people, 3.1 percent of the 2010 population of mainland China. Results indicated that the proposed approaches were feasible to optimize NTL products and simulate populations in both census (2000, 2010) and non-census (2005) years. In fact, just prior to the handover from the United Kingdom to China, the city’s economic output was equal to a quarter of China’s entire GDP. A travel ban was implemented for Wuhan, Hubei on Jan 23 to slow down the outbreak. With a database of 1.3 billion pictures that can be matched to a face on a CCTV camera in seconds, troublemaking citizens can easily be identified. Which Countries are Mapping the Ocean Floor? Which cities have the most CCTV cameras? 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. 14/01/2019. Registered in England & Wales No. People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read. As we close in on one billion CCTV surveillance cameras globally by the end of 2021, we will undoubtedly continue to be monitored well into the future. It ranked first in the new first-tier cities. (2020). The 12 urban clusters saw their share of China’s total population rise from 61.12% to 63.07% during the period from 2006 to 2015, for an increase of 1.95 percentage points. Author information: (1)Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China. Shenzhen was an unassuming town of 30,000 people – with only one functioning taxi – and China was still very much a communist, rural country. Something went wrong. Do you know the Pearl River Delta region? Yongli Wang, Steve Hung Lam Yim, Yuanjian Yang, Cory W. Morin, The effect of urbanization and climate change on the mosquito population in the Pearl River Delta region of China, International Journal of Biometeorology, 10.1007/s00484-019-01837-4, (2019). Although the government has agreed in spirit to maintain the city’s autonomy until 2047, recent actions suggest an eagerness to integrate the entire region into a seamless megacity. Xiong, L & Nijhuis, S 2019, Exploring Spatial Relationships in the Pearl River Delta. This colossal infrastructure project is a 31 mile (50 km) connection that includes bridges, tunnels, and three man-made islands. However, there are also those that feel the presence of cameras creates added safety. On the brighter side, the increase in prices led to an influx of capital in the rare earth mining industry, financing more than 200 projects outside China. Visualizing the Human Impact on the Earth’s Surface. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. A 2015 report concluded that, if taken as a single urban area, the zone is the largest such area in the world in both area and population. Join the 220,000+ subscribers who receive our daily email, 50 Years of Gaming History, by Revenue Stream (1970-2020). Population evolution in the PRD presented distinct differences from space and over time, and mainly driven by socioeconomic development. In 2018, Chengdu’s GDP exceeded 1.5 trillion yuan, accounting for 38% of Sichuan’s province. In the above interactive graphic, Surfshark maps out how prevalent CCTV surveillance cameras are in the world’s 130 most populous cities. Since Dec 2019, China has experienced an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. To put the scale of this population clustering into perspective, here are the populations of cities within the Pearl River Delta in 2020 compared with modern-day metropolitan areas in North America and Europe: Today, this compact region has a GDP equivalent to that of South Korea. World Population Growth Visualized (1950-2100). Rare earth deposits exist all over the planet, but the majority of the world’s rare earth metals are produced and refined in China. Japan and the U.S. are by far the largest importers, collectively accounting for more than two-thirds of China’s rare earth metals exports. Located on the Pearl River approximately 120 kilometers northwest of Hong Kong, the city is one of five National Central Cities and a major international hub.The estimated population for the city in 2016 is over 13 million. The Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Jing-Jin-Ji area saw their share of China’s total population increase more rapidly, with a rise of 2.54 percentage points. Another Pearl River Delta municipality, Foshan, continues to grow strongly. Human Dynamics in Smart Cities, Springer, pp. Megalopolis at the Gates By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. View the high resolution version of today’s graphic by clicking here. Also known as rare earth elements or simply “rare earths”, this group of 17 elements is critical to a number of wide-ranging industries. 1511-1526. Most moved temporarily into coastal regions such as the Pearl River Delta. For starters, the U.S. has added rare earth metals to its list of critical minerals, and President Donald Trump recently issued an executive order to encourage local production. In fact, it only took us 79 years to go from one camera to nearly one billion of these devices. In 2019, the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Pearl River Delta in mainland China grew by 6.4 percent. But mining is merely one piece of the puzzle. Around 88% of China’s 2019 rare earth exports went to just five countries, which are among the world’s technological and economic powerhouses. Overall, there is a rising middle class that wishes to protect itself with the use of CCTV cameras. A case in point comes from 2010 when China reduced its rare earth export quotas by 37%, which in part resulted in skyrocketing rare earth prices worldwide. In India, on the other hand, the amount of cameras can be attributed to mass urbanization, rising crime, and scarcity of urban resources. No.5 Chengdu. From smartphones and electric vehicles to x-rays and guided-missiles, several modern technologies wouldn’t be what they are without rare earth metals. issues in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region. We use cookies to improve your website experience. Wang Y(1), Yim SHL(2)(3)(4), Yang Y(1), Morin CW(5). By 2016, the Pearl River Delta accounted for 9.1% of China's GDP. Located across the Pearl River from Guangzhou, and with a subway integrated, Foshan has grown from 7.2 million to 8.2 million between 2010 and 2019. This map reveals the top surveillance cities worldwide in terms of the prevalence of CCTV cameras. Name the cities of the China's Pearl River Delta region, ... 2019. strange that they are obscure when all but one are as big as or bigger than the top ten US cities. By the end of 2019, there were 3,763 enterprises with foreign investment in Guangdong's Pearl River Delta in total, among which 735 were loss-making companies. Since the world’s first CCTV camera was installed in Germany in 1942, the number of surveillance cameras around the world has grown immensely. Did you know that a single iPhone contains eight different rare earth metals? The annual growth rate of 1.4% is slower, however, than that of the 2000s, when Foshan grew 3.0% annually. Since the Open Door Policy was implemented in 1978, the centres of the Pearl River Delta have seen astonishing rises in population, from mere rural villages to sprawling, urban centres. Here’s a closer look at the world’s top 10 cities by CCTV density. Visualizing the Biggest Threats to Earth’s Biodiversity, How News Media is Describing the Incident at the U.S. Capitol, Ranked: The Most Valuable Nation Brands in 2020, Decoding U.S. Election Day in 9 Key Charts, View a high resolution version of this graphic. Given email address is already subscribed, thank you! In 1979, the Chinese government – led by Deng Xiaoping – created four Special Economic Zones (SEZ) with the intention of attracting foreign direct investment and encouraging private enterprise. Epub 2019 Dec 6. Increasing rare earth mining outside of China has reduced China’s global share of mining, down from 97.7% in 2010 to 62.9% in 2019. We found a significant positive correlation between population influx from Wuhan and confirmed cases in other cities across China (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001), especially cities in Hubei (R 2 = 0.88, P < 0.001). The study location, Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, is ideally suited for this purpose since it is one the largest industrialized regions of China with high population and vehicular traffic (14 million and 2.3 million, respectively; Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook, 2017), thus leading to enhanced EC exposure potential for the residents. Although the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses only 0.4 percent of the land area and only 3.2 percent of the 2000 Census population of mainland China, it accounted for 8.7 percent of GDP, 35.8 percent of total trade, and 29.2 percent of utilised foreign capital in 2001. In dollar terms, terbium was the most expensive—generating $57.9 million from just 115 metric tons of exports. So how many of us are being watched? The PRD has an astonishing estimated population of 65 million people, which is comparable to the entire population of the United Kingdom, ... Pearl River Delta: China’s Megacity - … The blurring of the lines appears to be well underway, as more than half a million people from the city now reside in Mainland China, up from approximately 150,000 a decade ago. The northern sector of the Pearl River Delta is an expansive zone of industrial sprawl known informally as the factory of the world. New North American refining facilities are being set up to tackle this, but the challenge lies in managing the environmental impacts of processing rare earths. As surveillance networks become more sophisticated and granular, there is increasing concern about breaches to personal freedoms. At the close of the 20th century, Hong Kong was the undisputed economic powerhouse of the region. 35, No. —Gao Fengping et al., 2019, in a report funded by the Chinese government via Horizon Advisory. Monitoring population dynamics in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2010. in X Ye & X Liu (eds), Cities as Spatial and Social Networks. Oops. While this exploration boom was short-lived, it was successful in kick-starting production in other parts of the world. Today, the situation is markedly different. The United Nations has reported that 55% of the global population resides in urban areas, and 68% of the population is expected to be urban dwellers by 2050. Although CCTV cameras have become extremely prevalent in cities around the world, this does not mean these cameras are seeing and recognizing our every move. Geocarto International: Vol. The population was scattered between several medium-sized cities on an interlacing network of rivers and streams. The Chinese capital has the highest number of CCTV cameras in total, at just over 1.1 million installed in the city. The designation of Shenzhen and Zhuhai as SEZs was a strategic move to act as an “overflow” for businesses in Hong Kong, and the impact on the Pearl River Delta was profound and immediate. Print. While governments like China’s claim that having high amounts of surveillance cameras helps reduce crime, the actual data gets messy. The above graphic from CSIS China Power Project tracks China’s exports of rare earth metals in 2019, providing a glimpse of the country’s dominating presence in the global supply chain. The effect of urbanization and climate change on the mosquito population in the Pearl River Delta region of China. On the other side of the world, Japan is making efforts to reduce China’s share of its total rare earth imports to less than 50% by 2025. 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Damn you metro! For example, the Chinese city of Taiyuan has roughly 120 cameras per every thousand people and yet the city has a higher crime index than most. China’s Pearl River Delta has overtaken Tokyo to become the world’s largest urban area in both size and population, according to a report from the World Bank. The resulting supply chain disruption was significant enough to push the EU, the U.S., and Japan to jointly launch a dispute settlement case through the World Trade Organization, which was ruled against China in 2014. China and India are the countries with the highest densities of CCTV surveillance cameras in urban areas. Between the Past and Future: The Transformation of the Pearl River Delta examines the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and its spatial transformation from 1370 to present. Pearl River Delta Megalopolis. work elsewhere in China. Figure 1.Population size of the New York Bay Area urban agglomeration and the Pearl River Delta Bay Area urban agglomeration. 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